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Wideman Comparative Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v5.5 is copyright © R. Max Wideman, 2000-2017.

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Last updated 12-22-17

Master Glossary
Macro Environment   - to -   Management Reserve
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Term
Definition     Editor's Choice
Cat Source
Macro Environment
Consideration, inter-relationship and action of outside changes such as legal, social, economic, political or technological which may directly or indirectly influence specific project actions. [D00964]

FGJN

 PMK87
Macro Environment Variables
Influences of the larger environment, i.e. outside of, and perhaps well beyond, the immediate purview of the project. [D02972]

FGJN

 RMW
Main Plan
See Master Plan. [D00965]

FGJN
CHMT

  
Main Process
The overall process of the project work. [D00966]

N

 NPMT
Maintainability
The ability to be conveniently serviced and repaired over the expected life time. [D05385]

CHM

 MFC
A characteristic of design and installation which inherently provides for an item to be retained in, or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources. [D00967]

CHM

 USDoD
QMPP
The ability of an item to be retained in or restored to specific conditions when maintenance is performed by personnel having specific skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. [D03646]

CHM

 DSMC
Maintenance
Upkeep of property, equipment, or conditions (such as working conditions.) [D02973]

JN
CHM

 Webster
Maintenance Quality Assurance
The determination that material maintained, overhauled, rebuilt, modified, and reclaimed conforms to the prescribed technical requirements. [D00968]

CHM

 004 4155.15
QMPP
Major Defect
A defect other than critical, that is likely to result in failure, or to reduce materially the usability of the unit or product for its intended purpose. [D00969]

J
CHM

 MIL-STD 105
QMPP
Major Defective
A unit of product that contains one or more major defects, and may also contain minor defects but contains no critical defect. [D00970]

J
CHM

 MIL-STD 105
QMPP
Major Facility Project
A project category where the deliverable is a multipurpose facility resulting from new construction or major renovation. [D04134]

C

 CSM
Make or Buy
A decision process in which it is determined whether to manufacture internally, or buy from external sources some component, article or item of equipment. [D02974]

JN
CHM

 RMW
Make or Buy Decision
A determination based on relative overall costs for an assumed quantity of production, to produce the product in-house or to purchase from outside sources. [D03647]

FGJN
CHMT

 RMW
Management
The process of planning, organizing, executing, coordinating, monitoring , forecasting and exercising control. [D00973]

FGJN
CHMT

 PMK87
A process in the project management system that consists of direction and control to gets results according to established performance standards for scope, quality, time and cost. The process includes participation in setting the performance standards and in monitoring performance. [D00971]

FGJN
CHMT

 CCCP
The act of managing, controlling, the persons and other resources employed in a business, project, etc. [D00972]

N

 NPMT
The art of getting others to do what one cannot necessarily do oneself, by organizing, controlling and directing resources. [D03445]

N

 CRMP
A core supporting workflow in the software-engineering process, whose purpose is to plan and manage the development project. [D04685]

N
T

 RUP
Management Board
The top-level senior Management Board that consists of the Chief Executive (or equivalent) and other Board of Directors. [D06450]

VFGJN
CHMT

 123
Management by Exception
A management approach in which managers concern themselves with only those variances that appear exceptionally large, significant, or otherwise peculiar. [D06046]

FGJN
CHMT

 PMTWG
The issue of management reports to responsible managers only when action is called for. This helps the manager to avoid wading through voluminous reports where progress is going according to plan. However, the system may require subjective judgment by someone who is not as well placed to do so as the manager himself. Exception reports tend to be harbingers of bad news without the good news and hence seen as detrimental rather than beneficial. [D03068]

N

 CCCP
A management style in which exceptions to the baseline or plan are identified on a regular basis and acted upon, rather than reviewing every detail in every monitoring cycle.
Editor's Note: A management style particularly suited to the pressure of a project environment. [D02975]

N

 RMW
Management by Methods ("MBM")
Level 2 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model in which those proficient in MBR build on their knowledge base, level 1 (MBR) with customized project management processes and procedures. At this level practitioners get acquainted with, and become proficient in the use of, standard project management tools, frameworks and templates. The Work Breakdown Structure, the Responsibility Assignment Matrix, scheduling techniques, cost/schedule performance control and monitoring and configuration management are the hallmarks of Level 2 learning. At this level, an employee has the capacity to use the tools to analyze project performance data and to make recommendations for corrective actions accordingly. [D04372]

JN

 033
Management by Objectives ("MBO")
A management theory that calls for managing people based on documented work statements mutually agreed to by manager and subordinate. Progress on these work statements is periodically reviewed, and in a proper implementation, compensation is tied to MBO performance.
Editor's Note: In a sense, MBO is an attempt to projectize the work of individuals who are otherwise engaged in Line of Business operations. [D00974]

FGJN
CHMT

 VPM p291-4
Level 3 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure in which establishing and maintaining the project objectives as the reference point and managing and manipulating the methods at Level 2 (MBM) and the rules at Level 1 (MBR) as appropriate to that horizon. The graduated learning process is important in this regard: these manipulations require a strong grounding in the methods and the rules, knowledge of the tools and their limitations, knowing which rules to break and the implications of doing so. At this Level, an employee is expected to make the decisions and trade-offs that will help the project meet its objectives. [D04373]

JN

 033
Management by Politics ("MBP")
A potential Level 5 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure. This is an extrapolation of the model which would lead to a management approach where the essential values of the corporation are a dynamic baseline. This would entail dealing with some higher order issues wherein project managers would contend with harmonizing various corporate agendas in a politicized environment. A Level 5 MBP would be dealing with an intangible product with a focus on governance issues. The LML at Level 5 would be in essence a politician. [D04375]

FGJN
CHMT

 033
Management by Projects
The separating out of discrete activities by corporate management, designating them as projects, and managing them using the tools and techniques of project management. [D00976]

FJN
CHMT

 RMW
In project portfolio management, the application of the project management discipline to achieve or extend an organization's strategic goals. [D06047]

F

 PPM
A term that is gaining popularity, used to describe normal management processes that are being project managed. [D00975]

N

 WST
Management by Rules ("MBR")
Level 1 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure at which behavior, is the first level of learning. MBR is an indoctrination into the official operations for an organization. Employees are encouraged to develop a strong sense of affiliation with the institutional framework that defines the organization - rules, regulations, policies, procedures, directives, laws, acts, etc. At this level of learning, an employee is taught how to apply existing rules to conduct business, and on occasions, to interpret rules in some new way for the purpose of addressing project issues not readily covered in the existing framework. [D04371]

JN

 033
Management by Threshold
A system approach in which deviation limits or "thresholds" for key parameters are set relative to the baseline plan. When thresholds are exceeded the system alerts management to review and take corrective action. Such a system is intended to avoid the necessity for combing through extensive data to find errant conditions. [D05152]

JN

 RMW
Management by Values ("MBV")
Level 4 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure in which an employee has the capacity to manipulate and evolve the objective throughout the project life cycle (span) as appropriate to the overarching corporate values. MBV practitioners are expected to revisit and adjust project objectives with their attention focused on the corporate values horizon. In turn, this requires the capacity to manipulate the tools and the rules with the knowledge and experience to understand the implications as per Level 3 (MBO). [D04374]

JN

 033
Management by Walking Around ("MBWA")
Part of the Hewlett Packard legacy and popularized by management theorist Tom Peters. MBWA works on the assumption that a manager must circulate to fully understand the team's performance and problems. The best managers, according to Peters, spend 10 percent of their time in their offices, and 150 percent of their time talking and working with their people, their customers, and their suppliers. [D00977]

GJN

 VPM p291-4
Management Committee
A committee of senior representatives of the sponsoring organization who direct the organization and who also approve change expenditures above a certain level. [D05016]

FG

 SCL
Management Control Point
A point in the project life span, usually separating major Phases or Stages, at which senior management has the opportunity to confirm or deny continuation into the next Phase or Stage.
Editor's Note: Sometimes referred to as an Executive Control Point or Control Gate. [D02266]

FGJN
CHMT

 RMW
A point on the Work Breakdown Structure where budgeted and actual costs, schedule and work scope are integrated, planned and managed. [D02265]

JN
CH

 010
Management Development
All aspects of staff planning, recruitment, development, training and assessment. [D00978]

GJN

 WST
Management Fundamentals
Those general principles of management that are considered to be of prime importance in practical application. [D02976]

FGJN

 RMW
Management Information Center
An area where project information such as WBS, network, master schedule, top ten problems list, etc., is displayed to provide broad visibility into the health of the project. [D04135]

FGJN

 CSM
Management Information System
A data storage, retrieval and manipulation system for increasing the effectiveness of the project or enterprise. [D05386]

FGJ
T

 RMW
An orderly and disciplined accounting and reporting methodology, usually mechanized, which provides for the accurate recording of data, and the timely extrapolation and transmission of management information used in the decision-making process. See also Project Management Information System. [D01031]

FGJ
T

 DSMC
A system dedicated to increasing the effectiveness of the enterprise by implementing computer-based data retrieval, presentation systems, and productivity tools. [D04136]

F
T

 CSM
Management of Change
In business, the means by which the people issues surrounding business process reengineering are managed. Often involves a cultural shift in attitudes, expectations, opportunities, training and future prospects, along with the reorganization of people. This is a critical aspect of business process reengineering. Also known as Organizational Change Management. Not to be confused with Change Management or Version Control which focus on controlling product content, i.e. scope changes.
Editor's Note: From this you will see that Management of Change is not the same as Change Management. [D04940]

FGJ
CHMT

 SU
Management Plan
Document that describes the overall guidelines within which a project is organized, administered and managed to assure the timely accomplishment of project objectives. [D00979]

GJ
CHM

 PMK87
Management Reserve ("MR")
An amount of the owner's total allocated budget withheld under the owner's management control, rather than assigned as part of the project's scope under the control of the project manager. [D03648]

VFGJ
CHMT

 RMW
A portion of the contract budget base that is held for management control purposes by the contractor to cover the expense of unanticipated program requirements. It is not a part of the performance measurement baseline. Another term for management reserve is Contingency.

Editor's Note: We believe that the term "Contingency" should be reserved for funds that are within the control of the project manager to cover typical variations in productivity and acquisition costs. [D00981]

J

 WST
A portion of approved project budget, under the control of management, which is reserved for unidentified or unexpected work inside the scope of the project. This reserve is excluded from the baseline until it is assigned.
Editor's Note: From this definition and from the project manager's perspective, he or she would not consider it part of the project scope until released as a scope change (increase). [D02268]

J

 010
Additional funding that management may wish to set aside to fund the project at a higher level of confidence than the budget provides.
Editor's Note: And/or for changes in scope. [D05668]

FGJ
CHMT

 070
An amount (included in the funding, but separate and distinct from the estimate,) to allow for discretionary management purposes outside of the defined scope of the project, as otherwise estimated. Use of management reserve requires a change to the project scope and the cost baseline, while the use of contingency reserve funds is within the project's approved budget and schedule baseline. See also Contingency. [D06048]

F

 048 10S-90
Definitions for page M00: 50

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