Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March 2002.

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Macro Environment - to - Manager Interfaces

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Definition     Editor's Choice
Macro Environment
Consideration, inter-relationship and action of outside changes such as legal, social, economic, political or technological which may directly or indirectly influence specific project actions. [D00964]

Macro Environment Variables
Influences of the larger environment, i.e. outside of, and perhaps well beyond, the immediate purview of the project. [D02972]

Main Plan
See Master Plan. [D00965]

Main Process
The overall process of the project work. [D00966]

A characteristic of design and installation which inherently provides for an item to be retained in, or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources. [D00967]

The ability of an item to be retained in or restored to specific conditions when maintenance is performed by personnel having specific skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. [D03646]

Upkeep of property, equipment, or conditions (such as working conditions.) [D02973]

Maintenance Quality Assurance
The determination that material maintained, overhauled, rebuilt, modified, and reclaimed conforms to the prescribed technical requirements. [D00968]

 04 4155.15
Major Defect
A defect other than critical, that is likely to result in failure, or to reduce materially the usability of the unit of product for its intended purpose. [D00969]

 MIL-STD 105
Major Defective
A unit of product that contains one or more major defects, and may also contain minor defects but contains no critical defect. [D00970]

 MIL-STD 105
Major Facility Project
A project category where the deliverable is a multipurpose facility resulting from new construction or major renovation. [D04134]

A decision process in which it is determined whether to manufacture internally, or buy from external sources some component, article or item of equipment. [D02974]

Make-or-Buy Decision
A determination based on relative overall costs for an assumed quantity of production, to produce the product in-house or to purchase from outside sources. [D03647]

The process of planning, organizing, executing, coordinating, monitoring , forecasting and exercising control. [D00973]

A process in the project management system that consists of direction and control to gets results according to established performance standards for scope, quality, time and cost. The process includes participation in setting the performance standards and in monitoring performance. [D00971]

The act of managing, controlling, the persons and other resources employed in a business, project, etc. [D00972]

The art of getting others to do what one cannot necessarily do oneself, by organizing, controlling and directing resources. [D03445]

A core supporting workflow in the software-engineering process, whose purpose is to plan and manage the development project. [D04685]

Management by Exception
The issue of management reports to responsible managers only when action is called for. This helps the manager to avoid wading through voluminous reports where progress is going according to plan. However, the system may require subjective judgment by someone who is not as well placed to do so as the manager himself. Exception reports tend to be harbingers of bad news without the good news and hence seen as detrimental rather than beneficial. [D03068]

A management style in which exceptions to the baseline or plan are identified on a regular basis and acted upon, rather than reviewing every detail in every monitoring cycle.
Editor's Note: A management style particularly suited to the pressure of a project environment. [D02975]

Management by Methods ("MBM")
Level 2 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model in which those proficient in MBR build on their knowledge base, level 1 (MBR) with customized project management processes and procedures. At this level practitioners get acquainted with, and become proficient in the use of, standard project management tools, frameworks and templates. The Work Breakdown Structure, the Responsibility Assignment Matrix, scheduling techniques, cost/schedule performance control and monitoring and configuration management are the hallmarks of Level 2 learning. At this level, an employee has the capacity to use the tools to analyze project performance data and to make recommendations for corrective actions accordingly. [D04372]

Management by Objectives ("MBO")
A management theory that calls for managing people based on documented work statements mutually agreed to by manager and subordinate. Progress on these work statements is periodically reviewed, and in a proper implementation, compensation is tied to MBO performance. [D00974]

 VPM 291-4
Level 3 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure in which establishing and maintaining the project objectives as the reference point and managing and manipulating the methods at Level 2 (MBM) and the rules at Level 1 (MBR) as appropriate to that horizon. The graduated learning process is important in this regard: these manipulations require a strong grounding in the methods and the rules, knowledge of the tools and their limitations, knowing which rules to break and the implications of doing so. At this Level, an employee is expected to make the decisions and trade-offs that will help the project meet its objectives. [D04373]

Management by Politics ("MBP")
A potential Level 5 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure. This is an extrapolation of the model which would lead to a management approach where the essential values of the corporation are a dynamic baseline. This would entail dealing with some higher order issues wherein project managers would contend with harmonizing various corporate agendas in a politicized environment. A Level 5 MBP would be dealing with an intangible product with a focus on governance issues. The LML at Level 5 would be in essence a politician. [D04375]

Management by Project
A term that is gaining popularity, used to describe normal management processes that are being project managed. [D00975]

Management by Projects
The separating out of discrete activities by corporate management, designating them as projects, and managing them using the tools and techniques of project management. [D00976]

Management by Rules ("MBR")
Level 1 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure at which behavior, is the first level of learning. MBR is an indoctrination into the official operations for an organization. Employees are encouraged to develop a strong sense of affiliation with the institutional framework that defines the organization - rules, regulations, policies, procedures, directives, laws, acts, etc. At this level of learning, an employee is taught how to apply existing rules to conduct business, and on occasions, to interpret rules in some new way for the purpose of addressing project issues not readily covered in the existing framework. [D04371]

Management by Threshold
A system approach in which deviation limits or "thresholds" for key parameters are set relative to the baseline plan. When thresholds are exceeded the system alerts management to review and take corrective action. Such a system is intended to avoid the necessity for combing through extensive data to find errant conditions. [D05152]

Management by Values ("MBV")
Level 4 of a five level Dynamic Baseline Model structure in which an employee has the capacity to manipulate and evolve the objective throughout the project life cycle as appropriate to the overarching corporate values. MBV practitioners are expected to revisit and adjust project objectives with their attention focused on the corporate values horizon. In turn, this requires the capacity to manipulate the tools and the rules with the knowledge and experience to understand the implications as per Level 3 (MBO). [D04374]

Management by Walking Around ("MBWA")
Part of the Hewlett Packard legacy and popularized by management theorist Tom Peters. MBWA works on the assumption that a manager must circulate to fully understand the team's performance and problems. The best managers, according to Peters, spend 10 percent of their time in their offices, and 150 percent of their time talking and working with their people, their customers, and their suppliers. [D00977]

 VPM 291-4
Management Committee
A committee of senior representatives of the sponsoring organization who direct the organization and who also approve change expenditures above a certain level. [D05016]

Management Control Point
A point in the project life cycle, usually separating major Phases or Stages, at which senior management has the opportunity to confirm or deny continuation into the next Phase or Stage.
Editor's Note: Sometimes referred to as a Control Gate. [D02266]

A point on the Work Breakdown Structure where budgeted and actual costs, schedule and work scope are integrated, planned and managed. [D02265]

Management Development
All aspects of staff planning, recruitment, development, training and assessment. [D00978]

Management Fundamentals
Those general principles of management that are considered to be of prime importance in practical application. [D02976]

Management Information Center
An area where project information such as WBS, network, master schedule, top ten problems list, etc., is displayed to provide broad visibility into the health of the project. [D04135]

Management Information System
A system dedicated to increasing the effectiveness of the enterprise by implementing computer-based data retrieval, presentation systems, and productivity tools. [D04136]

An orderly and disciplined accounting and reporting methodology, usually mechanized, which provides for the accurate recording of data, and the timely extrapolation and transmission of management information used in the decision-making process. See also Project Management Information System. [D01031]

Management Plan
Document that describes the overall guidelines within which a project is organized, administered and managed to assure the timely accomplishment of project objectives. [D00979]

Management Reserve ("MR")
An amount of the owner's total allocated budget withheld under the owner's management control, rather than assigned as part of the project's scope under the control of the project manager. [D03648]

See Reserve. [D00980]

A portion of the contract budget base that is held for management control purposes by the contractor to cover the expense of unanticipated program requirements. It is not a part of the performance measurement baseline. Another term for management reserve is Contingency.

A portion of approved project budget, under the control of management, which is reserved for unidentified or unexpected work inside the scope of the project. This reserve is excluded from the baseline until it is assigned.
Editor's Note: From this definition and from the project manager's perspective, he or she would not consider it part of the project scope until released as a scope change (increase). [D02268]

Management Structure
Identification of management participants and their hierarchical relationships. [D02977]

Management Styles
The project manager may adopt several different management styles, according to circumstances, in the process of leadership and team motivation. These include:
  • Authoritarian: Lets individuals know what is expected of them, gives specific guidance as to what should be done, makes his part of the group understood, schedules work to be done, and asks group members to follow standard rules and regulations.
  • Combative: A project manager that is marked by an eagerness to fight or be disagreeable over any given situation.
  • Conciliatory: A project manager that is friendly and agreeable; one that attempts to assemble and unite all project parties involved to provide a compatible working team.
  • Disruptive: A project manager that tends to break apart the unity of a group, one that tends to be an agitator and causes disorder on a project.
  • Ethical: A project manager that is honest, sincere, able to motivate and to press for the best and fairest solution, one generally goes "by the books."
  • Facilitating: The project manager is available to answer questions and give guidance when needed; he does not interfere with day to day tasks, but rather maintains that status quo.
  • Intimidating: A project manager that frequently reprimands employees for the sake of an image as a "tough guy," at the risk of lowering department morale.
  • Judicial: A project manager that exercises the use of sound judgment or is characterized by applying sound judgment to most areas of the project.
  • Promotional: Encourages subordinates to realize their full potential, cultivates a team spirit and lets subordinates know that good work will be rewarded.
  • Secretive: A project manager that is not open or outgoing in speech activity, or purpose much to the detriment of the overall project.

Management System
Organizational structure and administrative routines through which management is exercised. [D00983]

Management Time
Man-hours related to the project management team. [D00984]

One whose work or profession is management. [D02978]

A role that encompasses providing technical and administrative direction and control to individuals performing tasks or activities within the manager's area of responsibility. The traditional functions of a manager include planning, resourcing, organizing, directing, and controlling work within an area of responsibility. [D05188]

Manager Interfaces
The means by which interaction or communication is achieved between managers with differing responsibilities, e.g. between project managers on concurrent projects. [D02979]

Definitions for page M00: 50

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