Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March 2002.

Please feel free to point to this document. For non-profit purposes you may copy this page, either whole or as whole definitions provided the above copyright notice is attached. For inclusion in for-profit works, please contact the author at

File: PMG_A03.htm generated 12/19/2002 9:25:28 AM
Generated by program: PMGlosGen v1.33 Program Author: Graham Wideman

Introduction | What's New in Version 6.1 | International Recognition
About the Author | Sources and References
Content Index |
Order Your V6.1 Copy Here!

Agency - to - Apportioned Effort

***  prev

Definition     Editor's Choice
A legal relationship by which one party is empowered to act on behalf of another party. [D00071]

A list of things to be done or discussed, typically at a meeting.
Editor's Note: No project meeting should be convened without the prior circulation of an Agenda. This enables attendees to prepare and ensure a productive and time-effective meeting. [D02366]

Summation of parts. Typically used in reference to estimating. [D02367]

An association that models a whole-part relationship between an aggregate (the whole) and its parts. [D04800]

The ability of an organization to adapt and react expeditiously and appropriately to changes in its environment and to demands imposed by the environment. [D05159]

Harmony of opinion or feeling; a contract or promise. [D04321]

A term often used to refer to contracts between an owner and its professional consultants. [D00072]

Concurrence of facts or approach, but not acceptance of meeting all requirements. [D03979]

Agreement, legal
A legal document that sets out the terms of a contract between two parties. [D00073]

See As-Late-As-Possible

A particular mathematical model used for running calculations, typically computerized. For example, different project management scheduling software programs use different Algorithms for calculating Resource Leveling. [D02368]

The bringing of separate parts into line. This may refer to physical parts or to notional parts such as goals and objectives. [D02369]

An agreement to act jointly. See Partnering. [D02370]

Allocated Baseline
Requirements allocated to lower level system elements that are controlled by formal change control. [D03980]

Allocated Requirements
Requirements apportioned to the elements of a system by applying applicable knowledge and experience. Determination of allocated requirements is not as scientifically rigorous as determination of derived requirements. [D03981]

The process of allocating work on an activity to specific Resources. [D03588]

See also Resource Allocation. [D00074]

The percentage of a resource's capacity designated for a specific assignment. [D04909]

Allowable Cost
A cost that meets the tests of:
  1. Reasonableness.
  2. Relevance to the contract.
  3. Accounting in accordance with standards promulgated by the Cost Accounting Standards Board, if applicable; otherwise, generally accepted accounting principles and practices appropriate to the particular circumstances.
  4. The terms of the contract.

An amount set aside, usually time or money.
Editor's Note: There are different types of allowances, e.g. Contingency Allowance, Scope Allowance or Contingency Reserve [D02371]

Alternate Resource
A resource that may be substituted as the requirement for an activity if the requested resource is not available. [D00075]

Alternative Analysis
Breaking down a complex scope situation for the purpose of generating and evaluating different solutions and approaches. [D00076]

Alternative Dispute Resolution ("ADR")
Any procedure or combination of procedures voluntarily used to resolve issues in controversy without the need to resort to litigation. These procedures may include, but are not limited to, assisted settlement negotiations, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, fact-finding, mini-trials, and arbitration. [D03797]

Review of the means available and the impact of trade-offs to attain the objectives. [D00077]

Something that is likely to be interpreted in more than one way.
Editor's Note: An important part of a project manager's job is to seek clarity and hence avoid ambiguity. [D02373]

A change in a solicitation prior to contract award. [D03798]

Amount at Stake
The severity or extent of adverse consequences which could occur to the project. For example, the cost of recovery from lost production, plus the cost of recovering from the delay, etc. [D00078]

See Advanced Material Release

The study and examination of something complex and separation into its more simple components. Analysis typically includes discovering not only what are the parts of the thing being studied, but also how they fit together and why they are arranged in this particular way. A study of schedule variances for cause, impact, and corrective action. [D00079]

The part of the software development process whose primary purpose is to formulate a model of the problem domain. Analysis focuses on what to do; design focuses on how to do it. See design. [D04681]

Analysis and Design
A discipline in the Unified Process, whose purpose is to show how the system's use cases will be realized in implementation; (general) activities during which strategic and tactical decisions are made to meet the required functional and quality requirements of a system. For the result of analysis and design activities, see Design Model. [D04794]

Analysis Time
Refers to something that occurs during an analysis phase of the software development process. See design time, modeling time. [D04682]

Member of the project team who is responsible for eliciting and interpreting the stakeholder needs, and communicating those needs to the entire team. [D04683]

AND Relationship
Logical relationship between two or more activities that converge on or diverge from an event.
Note: The AND relationship indicates that every one of the activities has to be undertaken. [D04380]

Based on hearsay rather than on demonstrated facts, hard data or personal experience. [D02374]

Anticipated Award Cost
The most probable contract price at time of tender and award. It forms part of the forecast to complete. See Cost Types. [D00080]

See Activity on Arc

See Activity on Arrow

See Activity on Node

See Average Outgoing Quality

See Average Outgoing Quality Limit

See Area of Project Management Application

Apparent Low Bidder
The contractor who has submitted the lowest compliant bid for all or part of a project as described in a set of bid documents. [D00081]

An act of putting to use (new techniques): an act of applying techniques. [D00082]

Application Area
A category of projects that have common elements not present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product of the project (i.e., by similar technologies or industry sectors) or the type of customer (e.g., internal vs. external, government vs. commercial, etc.). Application areas often overlap. [D00083]

Application for Expenditure ("AFE")
A formal document presented to management to permit the expenditure of funds, typically supported by appropriate justification documentation. See also Application for Expenditure Justification. [D02375]

Application for Expenditure Justification
The formal documentation required to support an Application for Expenditure. Typically a submission requesting funding to undertake the Implementation and Commissioning, Startup & Completion Phases of a capital project. It represents complete summary documentation of the project up to that point and is required by management to enable an appropriate decision to be made concerning continuation of the project and to ensure that a proper basis has been established for the conduct of the project during those ensuing phases. [D00070]

Application Programmers
Those programmers responsible for the development of function and industry relevant software that is determined by their employer's particular business (for example, banking, aerospace, stock brokerage, insurance, accounting, inventory). [D00084]

 SPM 304-9
Applied Direct Costs
The actual direct costs recognized in the time period associated with the consumption of labor, material, and other direct resources, without regard to their date of commitment or the date of payment. [D04612]

Apportioned Effort
Effort directly related to some other measured effort. [D04613]

Effort that is not itself readily divisible into short-span work packages but which is related and proportional to measured effort in other work packages. Project management overhead is an example. [D02273]

Definitions for page A03: 51

***  prev
next  ***

Home | Issacons | PM Glossary | Papers & Books | Max's Musings
Guest Articles | Contact Info | Top of Page