Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March 2002.

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Definition     Editor's Choice
See Responsibility/Accountability Matrix

See Responsibility Assignment Matrix

See Risk Analysis and Management for Projects

Random Observation
A technique for building up a picture of an activity by taking sufficient random observations. The alternative is to observe the activity continuously, which may itself influence performance of the activity. Particularly useful on a site, for example, to establish the extent and effect of (unproductive) walking, waiting, communication, break time etc. associated with several concurrent and possibly interrelated activities. [D03083]

Random Sample
A sample selected in such a way that each unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected. [D01602]

The difference between the highest and lowest observed values in a data set. [D03553]

An attribute of a use case or scenario that describes its impact on the architecture, or its importance for a release. [D04871]

Ranked Positional Weight Method ("RPWM")
A constrained resource scheduling method adapted from assembly line balancing in the manufacturing industry. Proponents claim that the method is simple and easy to apply, is less complex than critical path calculations since it is not necessary to determine the critical path nor keep track of early/late starts, to6al/free float and so on, and can provide solutions for both constrained and unconstrained resource scheduling situations. [D04598]

The listing of items according to merit based on specified criteria. [D05087]

Placing in relative standing or position. An orderly hierarchical arrangement according to some identifiable characteristics. [D03221]

Rapid Implementation
See Fast Tracking [D03222]

A statement, or explanation of the reasons for a choice. [D04872]

See Resource Breakdown Structure

See Relational Database Management System.

Readiness Assessment
A meeting or series of meetings by selected members of the customer C/SCSC review team at a contractorÍs plant, to review contractor plans and progress in implementing C/SCSC in preparation for a full demonstration review. [D01603]

Real Property
Land and rights in land, ground improvements, utility distribution systems, and buildings and other structures. [D03554]

Real Time
Immediate response to an outside stimulus. [D03682]

The application of external time constraints which might affect the calendar time position of execution of each activity in the schedule, [D01604]

Real World
"The way things really are" i.e. outside of a controlled, academic or structured environment. [D03683]

See Implementation Phase.
Editor's Note: According to APM, "Realization" is the internationally accepted and preferred term for implementation". [D04446]

Development of a revised implementation plan with new milestone schedules. Re-baselining is required in response to changed contract requirements, funding changes, or realization that the operative implementation plan is not achievable. [D04210]

See Re-Baselining. [D04305]

The process whereby the project's costs, time scale or resources have to be re-calculated due to a change in the project's objectives, a change in the deliverables to meet requirements, or the project's original scope and plans have become untenable. Re-baselining should be resisted unless absolutely necessary and project tracking should be done by the project's management by determining variances from the original baseline.
Editor's Note: In other words, re-baselining should only be undertaken with justification and the proper approvals. [D03605]

Recognized Profession
According to the IEEE Computer Society, the legitimation of a professional authority involves three distinctive claims: first, that the knowledge and competence of the professional have been validated by a community of his or her peers; second that this consensually validated knowledge rests on rational, scientific grounds; and third, that the professional's judgment and advice are oriented toward a set of substantive values such as health. These aspects of legitimacy correspond to the kinds of attributes - collegial, cognitive and moral - usually cited in the term "profession". [D04675]

To offer or suggest for use. Recommendation describes the presentation of plans, ideas, or things to others for adoption. To recommend is to offer something with the option of refusal. [D01605]

Something put forward as worthy of acceptance on the basis of fitness, worthiness, or competence. Typically, a recommendation is preceded by a factual account and justification or conclusion. [D03223]

Restored to the original normal operating condition by readjustments and material replacement. [D03555]

A set of data. [D01606]

 CPMUSC 176-8
Record Drawings
Drawings submitted by a contractor or subcontractor to show the construction of a particular structure or work as actually completed. [D03556]

Record Retention
The necessity to retain records for reference for a specified period after contract closeout, in case they are needed. [D01607]

Recording Facts
The assembly and documentation of explicit data, typically focused on a specific area for resolving a problem or issue. Particularly required in value management or litigation. [D03224]

Any assembly of books, documents, accounting procedures and practices, and other data, regardless of type and regardless of media (e.g. hardcopy, electronic, film, etc.) [D03557]

The collection of related items of information assembled during the course of a project. See also Records Management. [D03225]

Records Management
The effective and efficient receipt, processing, storage and retrieval of all project records, in whatever form (hardcopy, electronic, etc.) A good Records Management program should:

Every project large and small is involved in records management to a greater or lesser degree whether recognized or not. A conscious effort in this area can greatly reduce the time and effort required to trace information or to avoid duplication of work in the field due to oversight or misplaced information. [D01452]

The procedures established by an organization to manage all documentation required for the effective development and application of its work force. [D01608]

Recovery Schedule
A special schedule showing special efforts to recover time lost compared to the master schedule. [D01609]

Recruitment, Selection and Job Placement
Attraction of a pool of potential employees, determining which of those employees is best suited for work on the project, and matching that employee to the most appropriate task based on his or her skills and abilities. [D01610]

Recurring Costs
Expenditures against specific tasks that would occur on a repetitive basis. Examples are sustaining engineering, production of operational equipment, tool maintenance, etc. [D01611]

Recurring Task
A task that occurs repeatedly during the course of a project, such as a weekly staff meeting. [D01612]

Reduced Inspection
Inspection under a sampling plan using the same quality level as for normal inspection, but requiring a smaller sample for inspection. [D01613]

Reduction in Force
An action to reduce the number of headcount through layoffs, transfers or attrition. [D04211]

May refer to either
  1. Something serving as a duplicate for preventing failure of an entire system upon failure of a key component. Applied especially where safety is a concern.
  2. No longer needed for a job and hence laid off.

Duplication of capability to increase reliability. [D04212]

The process of redesigning a product, system or process (e.g. administrative) to be more effective or efficient. [D03227]

Reference Group
A group of people available for advice, and expecting to be kept informed during project planning and implementation. [D01616]

Referent Power
The ability (of a project manager) to gain support because project personnel feel personally attracted to the manager or the project. [D02892]

Refinement, Schedule Refinement
The rework, redefinition or modification of the logic or data that may have previously been developed in the planning process as required to properly input milestones, restraints and priorities. [D01617]

Regression Analysis
Where past data is insufficient for direct forecasting of future levels of activity it may still be possible to make assumptions based on relationships with other activities that can be forecast. This applies particularly to apportioned-effort tasks and to a lesser extent to level-of-effort tasks. [D03084]

A quantitative technique used to establish a line-of-best-fit through a set of data to establish a relationship between one or more independent variable and a dependent variable. That line is then used with a projected value of the independent variable(s) to estimate a value for the dependent variable.
Editor's Note: A valuable estimating tool provided the value to be estimate lies within the observed data and not beyond those limits. [D03558]

Rules or orders issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law. [D03228]

Definitions for page R00: 50

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