Copyright
Wideman Comparative Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v5.5 is copyright © R. Max Wideman, 2000-2017.

Please feel free to point to this document. For non-profit purposes you may copy this page provided the above copyright notice is attached. For inclusion in for-profit works, please contact the author at maxw@maxwideman.com

Last updated 12-22-17

Master Glossary
Development Plan   - to -   Discretionary Work
***  prev

Term
Definition     Editor's Choice
Cat Source
Development Plan
A plan for moving a project concept to a viable project. [D02843]

JN
CH

 RMW
Development Process
A set of partially ordered steps performed for a given purpose during software development, such as constructing models or implementing models. [D04722]

JN
MT

 RUP
Deviation
A departure from established requirements. Deviations occur when the work product either fails to meet or unnecessarily exceeds the requirements. [D00537]

N
MT

 002 10-2
QMPP
A difference (from a project plan, budget, etc.) [D00535]

N

 NPMT
Written authorization, granted prior to the manufacture of an item, to depart from a particular performance or design requirement of a contract, specification, or referenced document, for a specific number of units or specific period of time. [D00536]

N
HM

 004 5010.19
QMPP
Any variation from planned performance. The deviation can be in terms of schedule, cost, performance, or scope of work. Deviation analysis is the heart of exercising project control. [D03716]

N

 PPS&C p339
The change, plus or minus, from a control estimate or control curve. [D04967]

JN
C

 SCL
A noticeable or marked departure from the appropriate norm, plan, standard, procedure, or variable being reviewed. [D05174]

N

 SA-CMM
Deviation Permit
See Production Permit [D01296]

JN
MT

  
Diagram
A graphical depiction of all or part of a model. [D04825]

N
T

 RUP
Diagramming
See Scheduling. [D02661]

FGJN
CHMT

  
DID
See Data Item Description

J
T

  
Differences
Either
  1. Elements of disagreement or in dispute, having variations, or otherwise dissimilar, or
  2. The subtraction of one amount from another corresponding amount.
[D02662]

N

 RMW
Differentials
The amounts by which variable quantities differ. [D02663]

N

 Webster
Differing Site Conditions
Generally refers to either a subsurface or latent physical condition at the site which differs materially from the conditions shown or indicated in the contract documents. It may also include an unknown physical condition at the site, of an unusual nature, differing materially from conditions generally encountered and recognized as inherent in the work described by the contract documents. [D04968]

J
C

 PDG
Direct Cost Contingency
See Project Direct Cost Contingency. [D03786]

JN
CHMT

  
Direct Costs
Costs that are specifically attributable to an activity or group of activities without apportionment. [D04426]

JN
CHMT

 APM
BS
Any cost that is specifically identified with a particular Activity. See also Direct Project Costs [D00538]

JN
CHMT

 RMW
Those costs (labor, material, and other direct costs) that can be consistently related to work performed on a particular project. Direct costs are best contrasted with indirect costs that cannot be identified with a specific project. [D00539]

N

 WST
Direct Labor
Labor, i.e. man-hours, that is specifically identified with a particular Activity. [D02308]

JN
CHMT

 RMW
Direct Management Approach
A project delivery approach in which the sponsor retains responsibility for project delivery. This includes executing the project management, the design and the construction management functions with his own staff, or by assigning one or more of these three functions to contract services providers, who act as agents of the sponsor. [D06406]

FGJN
CHM

 Costin
Direct Project Costs
The costs directly attributable to a project, including all personnel, goods and/or services together with all their associated costs, but not including indirect project costs, such as any overhead and office costs incurred in support of the project. [D00540]

FGJN
CHM

 PMK87
Directing
The provision of instructions with a view to achieving a project goal or objective. [D02664]

JN
CHM

 RMW
The implementation and carrying out (through others) of those approved plans that are necessary to achieve or exceed project objectives. Generally of such broad and nonspecific nature that considerable judgment must be used in making decisions concerning the scope and frequency of demands. Directing encompasses: training; supervising; delegating; motivating; counseling; and coordinating. [D02666]

FGJN
CHMT

 PMDT
Direction
The way in which managers pass orders to subordinates. [D02667]

N

 PMDT
Directive
An instruction pursuant to a project objective. [D02665]

N

 RMW
Director
A level in a management hierarchy. [D04077]

N

 CSM
Disallowance
Refusal to recognize a cost as an allowable cost. [D05971]

JN
CHM

 PMTWG
Disaster Recovery Planning
A series of processes that focus on recovery processes, principally in response to physical disasters. This activity forms part of business continuity planning, not the totality. [D05972]

N

 MoR-UK
Dis-benefit
An outcome of a change that is perceived as negative by a stakeholder.
Editor's Note: In other words, a detriment. [D05974]

FGJN
CHMT

 BRM
An unfavorable outcome as a result of the Project or Program's activities. [D05563]

FGJN
CHMT

 MSP-UK 1999
Outcomes perceived as negative by one or more stakeholders. Dis-benefits are actual consequences of an activity whereas, by definition, a risk has some uncertainty about whether it will materialize. [D05973]

N

 MoR-UK
Discipline
A body of theory and techniques that must be studied and mastered to be put into practice. [D06407]

FGJN
CHMT

 124 p10
A broad general body of knowledge, skills and competence (expertise) that logically belong together and which are required by a company in order to provide its products or service, or to provide other functions necessary for its continued existence. [D03620]

FGJ
CHMT

 019
The sequence of activities performed in a business that produces a result of observable value to an individual actor of the business. [D04900]

N
T

 RUP
A field of study and practice requiring special knowledge with or without regulatory standards or limitations. [D05635]

N

 RMW
Alternatively: [D05975]

N

 SU
Discipline Maintenance
Ensuring the provision of organizational policies and procedures in the best interests of program or project goals and objectives and ensuring that they are followed [D02668]

VFGJ
CHMT

 RMW
Discontinuous Activity
An activity in which the interval between the start and finish dates is allowed to exceed its duration in order to satisfy start-to-start and finish-to-finish relationships with other activities. [D00541]

N

 WST
Discontinuous Processing
This option assigns the discontinuous attribute to all activities for a time analysis session, except where overridden by a specific activity type. [D00542]

N

 WST
Discount Rate
The rate of interest which is used to discount to their present-day value earnings arising in the future. With positive interest rates, a sum of money which is invested will increase in value over time and hence the present value of money is less than its value in the future. The size of the discount rate will affect the appraised viability of those projects to which it is applied. Broadly, the higher the discount rate the lower will be the present value of earnings (or benefits) arising in the future and the greater the negative impacts on project feasibility. The discount rate is determined pragmatically by the sponsor. Ideally it should take account of the sponsor's cost of capital, the rate of inflation, interest rates and rates of return on investments throughout the economy.
Note: There is a difference between "real" discount rates and "nominal" discount rates. Real discount rates are used in conjunction with cash flows which are expressed in terms of present-day money values, with no allowance for price inflation. (The cash flows should, however, allow for increments in future over and above price inflation, e.g. real wage increases.) Nominal discount rates, on the other hand, are higher than real discount rates and are applied to cash flows which make specific allowance for future price inflation at an estimated rate. [D04969]

FGN

 RAMP
Discount Value
The annual cost of capital factor applied to a future stream of income and expenditures can be discounted in order to derive a single present value. [D06408]

FGN

 Costin
Discounted Cash Flow ("DCF")
A calculation of present value of a projected cash flow based on some assumed rate of inflation or interest. [D02669]

FGN

 RMW
A method for comparing the relative merits of project investments taking into account the value of money, taxation, varying operating costs, earlier cash returns for reinvestment etc. Also known as Internal Rate of Return. Although theoretically not as sound as Net Present Value, it is easier to present and relate to interest rates on borrowed money. Neither DCF nor NPV takes into account project risks. [D03060]

N

 CCCP
Discounting
The process of reducing a future amount of money to a present value. [D02309]

N

 DSMC
Discrete Effort
Tasks that have a specific measurable end product or end result. Discrete tasks are ideal for earned value measurement. See Work Package. [D00543]

FGJN
CHMT

 WST
Discrete Milestone
A milestone that has a definite scheduled occurrence in time. [D00544]

GJN
CHMT

 WST
A milestone which has a definite, scheduled occurrence in time, signaling the start or finish of an activity. Synonymous with the term "objective indicator." [D04632]

N

 QWF
Discrete Task
A measurable activity with an output. [D04078]

N

 CSM
Discretionary Work
In IT project portfolio management, "Other Work" of a minor project-like nature that can be included in the prioritizing and scheduling processes. Examples: bug fixes, minor enhancements and small process improvements. [D05976]

FN
T

 PPM
Definitions for page D04: 50

***  prev

Home | Issacons | PM Glossary | Papers & Books | Max's Musings
Guest Articles | Contact Info | Top of Page