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Wideman Comparative Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v5.5 is copyright © R. Max Wideman, 2000-2017.

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Last updated 12-22-17

Master Glossary
Limits of Authority   - to -   Lump Sum
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Term
Definition     Editor's Choice
Cat Source
Limits of Authority ("LOA")
A corporate policy that provides guidelines for issuing proposals and bidding in the interest of risk detection and evaluation. [D02958]

N

 PMDT
Line
An authority relationship in organizational positions where one person (a manager) has responsibility for the activities of another person (the subordinate). [D02959]

N

 PMDT
Line and Staff
Two kinds of functions in an organization. Line refers to those functions that have a direct responsibility for accomplishing the end purpose of the organization. Staff refers to those members who perform purely advisory functions. [D02960]

N

 PMDT
Line Item
The smallest unit of product whose status is tracked in a status system. [D00940]

N

 PMK87
Line Manager
The manager of any group that makes a product or performs a service. [D00942]

FGJ

 WST
See also Functional Manager. [D00941]

GJ

  
Line of Balance ("LOB")
A graphical display of scheduled units versus actual units over a given set of critical schedule control points on a particular day. The line of balance technique is oriented towards the control of production activities. [D02941]

N

 PMDT
Line of Credit
Credit that remains available to a customer at all times. An agreement between a bank and a borrower to borrow up to a specified amount. [D02963]

N

 PMDT
Line Organization
A hierarchic company organization. [D00943]

N

 NPMT
Line/Functional Manager
Those responsible for activities in one of the primary functions of the organization, such as production or marketing, with whom the project manager must relate in achieving the projectís goals. [D00944]

F

 PMK87
Linear
Involving a single dimension, with emphasis on a straight line. [D02962]

N

 Webster
Linear Organization Chart
Used in addition to an organization chart to show the work package position in the organization by showing who participates, and to what extent, when an activity is performed or a decision is made. Shows the extent or type of authority exercised by each person in performing an activity in which two or more people have overlapping involvement. [D06043]

JN

 PMTWG
Linear Responsibility Chart
A special type of matrix in which the rows list the series of functions, activities, or tasks in some logic sequence, such as the project life span, and the adjacent columns identify the positions, titles or people involved. At the intersection of each adjacent column and its line item is placed a distinguishing symbol representing the level or type of responsibility involved by that person. [D02186]

JN

 RMW
Link
A dependency between tasks that specifies when a task begins or ends relative to another task. [D00945]

JN

 MSP98
See also Logical Relationship. [D00946]

N

  
Linkage
See Link. [D02964]

N

  
Linked Bar Chart
A bar chart drawn to show dependency links between activities/tasks. [D02965]

JN

 RMW
Linked Projects
A bar chart showing dependency links between activities on different projects, such as in a Program. [D03867]

JN

 PNG
Links
See Dependency Links. [D00947]

N

  
Liquidated Damages
A contract provision of the amount the seller will pay the buyer if the seller fails to deliver as promised. [D05384]

JN
CH

 MFC
A stipulation in a contract of a monetary amount that must be paid by the contractor if the contractor fails to deliver supplies or perform services as specified in the contract or any subsequent modification. Payments are in lieu of actual damages related to the failure. [D03527]

JN

 GAT
Listening
A one-sided process where a person perceives information without interrupting while another is talking. [D05795]

N

 Q&A p240
Lists, project
The tabulations of information organized in meaningful fashion. [D00948]

JN

 PMK87
LML
See Lowest Management Level

JN

  
LOA
See Limits of Authority

N

  
LOB
See Line of Balance

N

  
Local Area Network ("LAN")
A computer network located at a user's establishment within a limited geographical area. A LAN typically consists of one or more server machines providing services to a number of client workstations. [D04854]

T

 RUP
Locate Responsibility
The act of determining who is responsible for a particular activity or event. [D02966]

N

 RMW
Location
A position or site occupied or available for occupancy or marked by some distinguishing feature. [D02967]

N

 Webster
LOE
See Level of Effort

GJN
CH

  
Log
A running record of issues or problems for disposition typically related to quality, risk, productivity issues, etc. [D05667]

N

 RMW
Logic
The interdependency of the activities in a network. [D00950]

JN

 PMK87
See also Network Logic. [D00949]

N

  
Logic Diagram
See Project Network Diagram. [D00951]

GJN
C

  
Logic Link
See Dependency Links. [D00952]

N

  
Logic Loop
A circular sequence of dependency links between activities in a network. [D00953]

N

 WST
Logic Network
Diagram showing dependencies between activities. [D00954]

N

 NPMT
Logic Restraint
A dummy which defines the dependency of one part of the network on another part of it. [D00955]

N

 CPMUSC p176-8
Logic Sequencing
The arranging of project activities in to a self-evident or reasoned and progressive series. [D02968]

N

 RMW
Logical Relationship
A dependency between two project activities, or between a project activity and a milestone. See also precedence relationship. The four possible types of logical relationships are:
Editor's Note 1: The dependency may include a lead or a lag, which may be negative in value, reflecting a Fast Track approach. Editor's Note 2: The logic of the Start-to-Finish relationship applies where handover is an essential part of completing the "from" activity such as in a relay race. [D00956]

N

 PMK96
Logical View
An architectural view that describes the main classes in the design of the system: major business-related classes, and the classes that define key behavioral and structural mechanisms (persistency, communications, fault-tolerance, user-interface). In the Unified Process, the logical view is a view of the design model. [D04855]

N
T

 RUP
Logistics
Services and supplies necessary for the deployment and support of a system. [D04131]

JN

 CSM
The business of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of resources to accomplish a particular task. [D03644]

N

 RMW
Logistics Support
Services provided to deploy, operate, and maintain systems. Typical services include transportation, maintenance, supply, training, spares, data management, operations and maintenance personnel, computer resources, packaging and handling, interface management, and support equipment. [D04132]

JN
HMT

 CSM
The supply and maintenance of material essential to proper operation of a system in the field. [D02969]

N

 PMDT
Lognormal Distribution
A statistical distribution of a random variable whose natural logarithm is normally distributed. The lognormal distribution is often used to model data that is positively skewed. [D06447]

N

 PrjDec
Long Lead Items
Those components of a system or piece of equipment for which the times to design and fabricate are the longest and for which an early commitment of funds may be desirable or necessary in order to meet the earliest possible date of system completion. [D03645]

N

 DSMC
Long Lead Procurement
The early procurement of material or parts to accommodate early use or long procurement spans. Contractors may choose to seek buyer-approved pre-award commitments of funds to meet the long lead requirements. [D04133]

JN

 CSM
Long Range Planning
Establishing goals, objectives and strategies that have a time frame of more than one year. [D06449]

FGJN
CHMT

 asae
Long Term
Anything occurring over or involving a relatively long period of time.
Editor's Note: Generally thought of as several years. [D02970]

FGJN
CHMT

 Webster
Long Term Capability
A measure of how robust the response characteristic is to systematic, nonrandom variations. It is an indirect measure of manufacturing control. [D06448]

N
M

 Costin
Loop
An error in a network which results in a later activity imposing a logical restraint on an earlier activity. [D04585]

JN
CHMT

 APM
BS
A network path that passes the same node twice. Loops cannot be analyzed using traditional network analysis techniques such as CPM and PERT. Loops are allowed in GERT [D00958]

N

 PMK96
In networks, a set of symbols indicating that one or more activities are mutually dependent. [D00959]

N

 WST
A path in a network closed on itself passing through any node more than once on any given path. The network cannot be analyzed, as it is not a logical network. [D00960]

N

 PMK87
Loss
A situation that exists when cost is greater than revenue (e.g., contract price). Profit is negative. [D03528]

FGJN
CH

 GAT
Failure to earn a profit on a contract because the costs of performance (both direct and indirect) have exceeded the amount paid to the contractor under the terms of the contract. [D06044]

C

 PMTWG
Lot
A collection of units of product bearing identification and treated as a unique entity from which a sample is to be drawn and inspected to determine conformance with the acceptability criteria. [D00961]

JN
M

 MIL-STD 105
QMPP
Lot Formation
The procedure of collecting, segregating, or delineating production units into homogeneous identifiable groups according to type, grade, class, size, composition, or condition of manufacture. [D00962]

JN
HM

 MIL-STD 109A
QMPP
Lot Size
The number of units of product in a lot. [D00963]

JN
HM

 MIL-STD 105
QMPP
Lowball Offer
An artificially low-priced bid offered by a seller to induce a buyer to select him or her, over competitors, to perform the service or provide the products required. Once the bid is won, the seller attempts to earn what is actually required to do the job by negotiating artificially high-priced change orders during the contract or work period. [D06045]

CHM

 PMTWG
Lowest Management Level ("LML")
A term used in the Dynamic Baseline Model hierarchy in which a project may be positioned and is the control point for a project. It represents the level at which the project must be managed on an on-going basis in order to deal effectively with the dynamic issues below the LSB.
  1. For a "Production" project the LML is the Supervisor level. A Supervisor is the lowest management level with sufficient capacity and authority to deal effectively with a dynamic procedures baseline.
  2. For a "Construction" project the LML is the Manager level. A Manager is the lowest management level with sufficient capacity and authority to deal effectively with a dynamic design baseline.
  3. For a "Development" project the LML is the Director level. A Director is the lowest management level with sufficient capacity and authority to deal effectively with a dynamic requirements baseline.
  4. For an "Evolution" project the LML is the Owner level. The project Owner is the lowest management level with sufficient capacity and authority to deal effectively with a dynamic objectives baseline.
A project can only be expected to meet its LSB, and therefore success or failure should only realistically be measured relative to that baseline. [D04376]

JN

 033
Lowest Static Baseline ("LSB")
Using the flow down of organizational objectives from corporate values to project objectives to functional requirements to product design, the LSB is the lowest level that is relatively fixed for a given project in the hierarchy and is therefore readily "baseline-able". A term used in the Dynamic Baseline Model hierarchy in which a project may be positioned. A project can only be expected to meet its LSB, and therefore success or failure should only realistically be measured relative to that baseline. [D04370]

JN

 033
LQ
See Limiting Quality

N

  
LS
See Latest Start

JN

  
LSB
See Lowest Static Baseline

JN

  
LSD
See Latest Start

JN

  
Lump Sum
See Fixed Price. [D02971]

FGJN
CHMT

  
Definitions for page L03: 68

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