Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March 2002.

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Definition     Editor's Choice
See Budget at Completion

See Baseline at Completion

Back Charge
See Backcharge. [D02400]

The cost of corrective action taken by the purchaser, chargeable to the supplier under the terms of the contract. [D00122]

Backward Pass
Calculation of the latest finish times by working from finish to start for the uncompleted portion of a network of activities. [D04315]

Calculation of late finish times (dates) for all uncompleted network activities. Determined by working backwards through each activity. [D00123]

Calculation of latest finish and start dates. Used in Critical Path Method scheduling. [D00124]

A procedure within time analysis to calculate the late start and late finish dates of all activities in a project. [D00125]

Bad Debts
Actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectable accounts receivable due from customers and other claims, and any directly associated costs (e.g., collection costs and legal costs). [D03799]

The amount remaining after summing a set of cost data. Alternatively, to trade off one item against another. [D02401]

Balanced Matrix
An organizational matrix where functions and projects have the same priority. [D00126]

Balanced Scorecard
See Scoring a Project's Contribution. [D04353]

Balanced Scorecard Approach ("BSA")
A business methodology designed to assess the performance of an enterprise in more than just financial terms, developed by Kaplan and Norton of Harvard Business School, 1996. When applied to evaluating the relative merits of proposed projects, BSA assists in evaluating the contribution of project objectives to the enterprise based on four "balanced" perspectives of: financial, internal process, customer, and learning or growth. [D04913]

A planned accumulation of work in progress to permit reasonable fluctuations in performance during times of coordination or associated operation. [D02403]

Setting aside, or put in reserve. For example, holiday time may be worked instead and the corresponding hours "banked", to be drawn upon at some future time. [D02402]

Bar Chart
A view of project data that uses horizontal bars on a time scale to depict activity information. Frequently called a Gantt chart. [D00130]

A graphic presentation of work activities shown by a time-scaled bar line (sometimes referred to as a Gantt Chart). [D00127]

A project plan in which the activities are denoted graphically by lines on a times scale. [D00128]

A scheduling tool (also called a Gantt chart) in which the time span of each activity is shown as a horizontal line, the ends of which correspond to the start and finish of the activity as indicated by a date line at the bottom of the chart. [D00129]

 SPM 304-9
Chart on which activities and their durations are represented by lines drawn to a common time scale.
Note 1: A Gantt chart is a specific type of bar chart and should not be used as a synonym for bar chart.
Note 2: See also Cascade Chart. [D04571]

Persuasion, alteration of assumptions and positions, give-and-take, that may apply to price, schedule, technical requirements, type of contract, or other terms of a proposed contract. [D03800]

Bargaining Power
The power of each party in the bargaining process is relative. It comes in many forms and is never totally one-sided, because both parties have bargaining strengths and weaknesses. It must be perceived by at least one party to have an effect on negotiations. In fact, the power does not have to be real as long it is perceived. [D03801]

Obstacles in the way of progress, mutual understanding, negotiated settlements, etc. [D02404]

Bottom support, or initial reference, or starting point. [D02405]

Resources needed to operate and maintain capabilities that exist at the beginning of the fiscal year throughout the budget year. [D03994]

The value or condition against which all future measurements will be compared. [D04916]

A copy of the project schedule for a particular time (usually before the project is started) that can be used for comparison with the current schedule. [D00131]

A formally approved version of a configuration item, regardless of the media, formally designated and fixed at a specific time during the configurationÍs life cycle. [D00132]

 08 -3
A way to track project progress by comparing original plan estimates against actual progress. A baseline contains original scheduling, resource and cost estimates. [D00133]

Management plan and/or scope document fixed at a specific point in time in the project life cycle and used as a basis for reference. [D00134]

See Baseline Plan [D00135]

A planning and control instrument in the form of a summary of attributes such as quantity, quality, timing, costs, etc, that establishes a formal reference for comparison and verification of subsequent efforts, progress, analysis and control. Can be for project, business or technical management control. [D04316]

The work scope, the schedule plan of milestones and activities, and their time-phased budgets together constitute a Baseline. [D02260]

A defined quantity or quality used as a starting point for subsequent efforts and progress measurement. Can be a technical baseline or a cost baseline, etc. [D02278]

A set of dates and costs frozen at the start of the project and used as a basis for comparison as the project progresses. [D03590]

The gate controlled elaboration of functional, performance, and physical characteristics, mutually agreed to by buyer and seller, and under formal change control. Typical baselines are User Requirements Baseline, Concept Baseline, System Specification Baseline, Design-to Baseline, Build-to Baseline, As-built Baseline, As-tested Baseline, As-fielded Baseline, etc. [D03995]

Reference levels against which the project is monitored and controlled. [D04572]

A reviewed and approved release of artifacts that constitutes an agreed basis for further evolution or development and that can be changed only through a formal procedure, such as change management and configuration control. [D04689]

An element of the business case for a program, describing costs and performance levels that would be achieved if those operations continued unchanged over the planned period of the program. The baseline is used to compare the costs and benefits of the options evaluated in the business case. [D04914]

The set of assumptions and methods which are used as the basis for the evaluation of risk in a project and its subsequent management. Risk analysis is impossible without a baseline which would, for example, include information on the objectives of the project, values of key financial parameters like discount rates, assumed levels of cash flows, financial model adopted, etc. [D04915]

Baseline at Completion ("BAC")
Total completed cost of work as originally planned. [D02242]

Baseline Concept
Management's project management plan for a project fixed prior to commencement. [D00136]

Baseline Control
See Configuration Control [D00278]

Baseline Cost
The amount of money an Activity was intended to cost when the Baseline Plan was established. [D03591]

Baseline Dates
Original planned start and finished dates for an activity. Used to compare with current planned dates to determine any delays. Also used to calculate budgeted cost of work scheduled in earned value analysis. [D00137]

Baseline Finish Date
See Scheduled Finish Date. [D00138]

Baseline Management
The planning, organizing and control of baseline documentation. See, for example, Configuration Management. [D02406]

Baseline Plan
The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes. Usually used with a modifier, e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline, etc. [D01853]

The initial approved plan to which deviations will be compared as the project proceeds. [D00139]

 OTOB 271-4
Baseline Review
A customer review conducted to determine with a limited sampling that a contractor is continuing to use the previously accepted performance system and is properly implementing a baseline on the contract or option under review. [D00140]

Definitions for page B00: 50

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