Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March 2002.

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Cash Flow Analysis - to - Change Order

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Definition     Editor's Choice
Cash Flow Analysis
The activity of establishing cash flow (dollars in and out of the project) by month and the accumulated total cash flow for the project for the measurement of actual versus the budget costs. This is necessary to allow for funding of the project at the lowest carrying charges and is a method of measuring project progress. [D00210]

Cash Flow Management
The planning of project expenditures relative to income in such a way as to minimize the carrying cost of the financing for the project. This maybe achieved by delaying some of the major activities, but only at the risk of late completion and consequent increased cost. [D02448]

Cash Flow, Net
Difference between cash received and payments made during a specific period. [D04395]

Cash In
The inflow of funds. Also, to take advantage of a special situation. [D02449]

Cash Out
The outflow of funds. [D02450]

One who brings people and their ideas together. [D02451]

Catch-up Alternatives
Different ways of bringing a project back onto the planned schedule. [D02452]

The facts and circumstances that produce a result for which a party claims entitlement for compensation. [D04939]

To make happen. In legal circumstances, a suit or action in court. [D02453]

See Component-Based Development

See Cost Breakdown Structure

See Change Control Board

See Contractor Cost Data Report

See Critical Design Review

Central Processing Unit ("CPU")
The heart of a computer system where data manipulation occurs. [D04016]

Concentrated at the center such as management or administration conducted from one main location. All power and authority exercised by an elite few at the top of the organization.. [D02454]

See Certainty. [D02455]

Unquestionable, free from any doubt. No risk involved. [D02456]

Certificate of Conformance
A certificate signed by a contractor representative that the supplies or services required by the contract have been furnished in accordance with all applicable contract requirements. [D03466]

A contractor's written statement, when authorized by contract, certifying that supplies or services comply with contract requirements. [D00211]

 FAR 46.315
A written testimony to certain facts. Used to satisfy regulatory bodies or customers that a person's or thing's capability, qualities, performance, etc. are up to specified standards. [D02457]

A series of elements joined together in sequence, such as a logical series of activities or occurrences. [D02458]

A demanding condition to be overcome, such as anticipated and unanticipated risks in a project. [D02459]

A person who takes on personal responsibility (though not usually day-to-day management) for the successful completion of a visionary project or creative change in an organization. It may involve a product launch, an innovation in process, or any type of project. [D00212]

 OTOB 271-4
An end user representative, often seconded into a project team. Someone who acts as an advocate for a proposal or project. [D04396]

A systematic way of reaching an intended outcome. Philosophically, change is what project management is all about. [D02643]

The substitution of one thing in place of another. [D00213]

An increase or decrease in any of the project characteristics. [D00214]

Types of change include:
  1. Bilateral - An agreement negotiated between the owner and a contractor for a change to the contract documents. The agreement includes the scope of the change, and the time and cost impacts.
  2. Cardinal - Work not required by the contract, as well beyond the general scope of the contract. The basic legal test for a cardinal change is whether the type of work is within that contemplated by the parties when the contract was entered into and hence whether the project as modified is significantly different from the project as bid.
  3. Constructive - An act or failure to act by an owner that is not a directed change, but which has the effect of requiring the contractor to perform work beyond that which is required under the terms of the contract.
  4. Unilateral - A change to the contract issued by the owner without the agreement of the contractor as to the cost or time impact.

Change Control
The review, approval/disapproval, implementation, tracking, closure, and status reporting of proposed changes to an item. (See also Change Management). [D05167]

The process of accepting or rejecting changes to the project's baselines. Lack of change control is one of the most common causes of scope creep. [D02460]

The process of implementing procedures which ensure that proposed changes are properly assessed and, if approved, incorporated into the project plan. Uncontrolled changes are one of the most common causes of delay and failure. [D03807]

The risk abatement process of accepting or rejecting changes to the project's baselines, based on predetermined criteria or "Trigger Points". Of particular value in avoiding scope creep. [D04317]

Change Control Board ("CCB")
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting changes to the project baselines. [D00216]

A board established to review all proposed changes to an approved baseline. The scope includes all technical and program changes to the project. The project manager is chairperson of the Change Control Board. [D00215]

 VPM 291-4
Same as the Configuration Control Board, but the scope includes all technical and programmatic changes to the project. See also Configuration Control Board, Project Control Board. [D04017]

Change Control Board ("CCB")
A group of people responsible for providing a central control mechanism to ensure that every change request is properly considered, authorized and coordinated. [D04809]

Change Documentation
The official, authoritative records of changes both accepted and rejected. [D02461]

Change in Scope
See Scope Change. [D00217]

A change in objectives, work plan, or schedule that results in a material difference from the terms of an approval to proceed previously granted by higher authority. Under certain conditions (normally so stated in the approval instrument), change in resources application may constitute a change in scope. [D00218]

Change Log
A record of all project changes, proposed, authorized or rejected. [D04397]

Change Management
The formal process through which changes to the project plan are approved and introduced. [D04398]

The activity of controlling and tracking changes to artifacts. See also scope management. [D04703]

  1. In business, the means by which the people issues surrounding business process reengineering are managed. Often involves a cultural shift in attitudes, expectations, opportunities, training and future prospects, or
  2. Of people, a critical aspect of business process reengineering.

Change Management Plan
A defined process for making changes to a project plan. [D02188]

Change Notice
An approved document of change to an AFE or project expense which does not itself authorize funds, but only reallocates funds within an AFE or project budget. [D04941]

Change Order
A unilateral written order to a contractor to modify a contractual requirement within the scope of contract and consistent with the terms of that contract. [D02282]

See Variation Order. [D00220]

A form issued to a construction contractor to change the scope of work and contract price, and hence a commitment document. [D00219]

A written order, signed by the organization's contracting officer, directing the contractor to make a change that the changes clause authorizes the contracting officer to order without the contractorÍs consent. [D03467]

A document that authorizes a change in some aspect of the project. [D03713]

 PPS&C p338
Definitions for page C01: 51

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