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Wideman Comparative Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v5.5 is copyright © R. Max Wideman, 2000-2017.

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Last updated 12-22-17

Master Glossary
Operational System   - to -   Organizational Constraints
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Term
Definition     Editor's Choice
Cat Source
Operational System
The functioning system in its operational environment. [D04162]

J
HMT

 CSM
Operations
The business of providing continuing services or production as distinct from project work where the duration is finite. [D05676]

G

 RMW
In project portfolio management, that part of the organization responsible for the on-going deployment of products and services and realizing the corresponding business benefits. [D06072]

F

 PPM
Operations Acceptance Review
A review for the purpose of determining whether the operation of a product or system resulting from a project is satisfactory and acceptable. [D03099]

G
HMT

 RMW
Operations and Maintenance ("O&M")
Usually covers field operations, training, repair, logistics support, upgrades, and related items. [D04163]

N
HMT

 CSM
Operations and Maintenance Manual
A document that describes the required operations and maintenance procedures for an entity or a system. [D04164]

N
CHMT

 CSM
Operators
The personnel who functionally operate the system. [D04166]

J
CHMT

 CSM
Operator's Manual
A document providing instructions on how to operate the system. [D04165]

J
CHMT

 CSM
OPL
See Qualified Product List

JN

  
Opportunities
The potential for improving the value of the project results. [D04167]

JN

 CSM
Opportunity
A favorable event or situation, often unexpected, that if acted upon can add value to the project and/or its deliverables. [D05677]

FGJN
CHMT

 RMW
The cumulative effect of the chances of uncertain occurrences which will affect project objectives positively. Opportunity is the opposite of risk. [D01107]

JN

 RMH
Opportunity Cost
The net value of an opportunity foregone. [D05396]

N
CHMT

 RMW
The value of an opportunity that is lost or sacrificed when the choice of one course of action requires that another course of action must be given up. A non-accounting value that can be significant in certain circumstances, usually as a consequence of limited resources. It is measured by the profit that could have been generated had the resources been available. [D05153]

N

 040
The rate of return that would have been earned by selecting an alternative project rather than the one selected. Opportunity cost is used as one variable in project selection. [D06073]

FGJN

 PMTWG
Opportunity Phase
The first phase in the generic project life cycle (span) is often split into two stages.

The experience of project management has consistently shown that project personnel generally wish they had been more thorough and/or spent longer at this project "front end". [D03449]


FGJN
CHMT

 CRMP
Optimism
An inclination to put the most favorable construction upon actions and events or to anticipate the best possible outcome. [D03105]

FGJN

 Webster
Optimistic
See Optimism. [D03104]

FGJN

  
Optimistic Duration
The shortest of the three durations in the three duration technique or PERT. [D03879]

N

 PNG
Optimistic Time
Roughly speaking, this is the best-case time to complete an activity. The term has a more precise meaning which is defined in PERT literature. [D03725]

N

 RMW
Optimization
A benefit-driven process that exploits all types of opportunity for increasing the value of an investment. [D06074]

N

 BRM
Option
A clause in a Contract permitting an increase in the quantity of supplies, or the extent of work, or the time allowed, beyond the amounts stated in the base contract. [D03662]

JN
CHMT

 RMW
Oral
Spoken communication. [D01108]

N

 PMK87
Order of Magnitude
See Order of Magnitude Estimate. [D03106]

FGJN
CHMT

  
Order of Magnitude Estimate
(Accuracy -25, +75 Percent) This is an approximate estimate made without detailed data, that is usually produced from cost capacity curves, scale up or down factors that are appropriately escalated and approximate cost capacity ratios. This type of estimate is used during the formative stages of an expenditure program for initial evaluation of the project. Other terms commonly used to identify an Order of Magnitude estimate are preliminary, conceptual, factored, quickie, feasibility and SWAG. [D01110]

FGJN
CHMT

 PMK87
See also Estimate. [D01109]

GJN
CHMT

  
An estimate carried out to give a very approximate indication of likely out-turn costs. [D04466]

JN

 APM
Order of Precedence
A provision that sets forth the ranking order of contractual documents contained in a solicitation or procurement in the event there are conflicts in the language of individual documents. [D05806]

JN
CH

 089 p266
Organization
A structured arrangement of people. [D04599]

GJ

 RMW
In project portfolio management, the entire organizational structure including the Executive and its functional departments; Business Units (if any) and Operations; and Program and Project Management. [D06075]

FGJ

 PPM
"Organ in action". In business, government, and other kinds of endeavor, the collective functioning of a group to achieve mission, goals and objectives. [D01111]

N

 TML p221
The administrative or executive structure of a business or project. [D01112]

J

 NPMT
A company, corporation, firm or enterprise, whether incorporated or not, public or private. [D01113]

J

 008
QMPP
Organization and Methods Study
the study of the best form of organization, systems and procedures to accomplish the project. It includes line and staff relationships, communication and coordination interfaces between disciplines and responsibility areas and so on. Setting down the framework establishes working relationships recognized by the whole team. This improves necessary information transfer and reduces unnecessary communication, work load and stress on the project organization. [D03079]

N

 CCCP
Organization Breakdown System
See Organizational Breakdown Structure. [D03107]

GJN

  
Organization Chart
A graphical display of the structure of an organization showing the relationship between departments and/or the people involved and their respective positions or responsibilities. [D03108]

GJN

 RMW
A table or diagram that describes reporting relationships among various responsibilities, expressed as jobs or groups of jobs. [D06463]

N

 asae
Organization Culture
The set of values, beliefs, and behavioral norms that guide how members of the organization get work done. [D06464]

JN

 PMJ Sep 2009, p16
Organization Development
The use of behavioral science technology, research, and theory to change an organization's culture to meet predetermined objectives involving participation, joint decision making and team building. [D01114]

JN

 PMK87
Organization Plan
A plan describing how the organization will be set up for the project, how it will evolve and retire during the course of the project, and who will be involved, with what authorities and responsibilities. [D03109]

JN

 RMW
Organization Resources
The people required to staff the project organization. [D03110]

GJN

 RMW
Organization Structure
A structure that defines the reporting relationships, processes, systems and procedures of the project. Issues typically important in the structuring of a project include the degree of project/functional orientation, the extent of the project management (office) authority, collocation of project members, the allocation of resources, work packaging and interface management, and the definition of control, authorization and reporting procedures and systems. There are three basic kinds of organization structure:
  1. Functional - where resources are controlled totally from within their respective functional unit
  2. Project - where resources are allocated on a dedicated basis to a project, from where they are controlled
  3. Matrix - where resources are controlled functionally by their functional head and concerning their project requirements by the project manager

The choice of structure should take account of cultural and environmental influences and may change as the project evolves through the project life cycle (span) and because of different types and conditions of contract. [D03450]


FGJN
CHMT

 CRMP
Identification of participants and their hierarchical relationships. [D01115]

GJN
CHMT

 PMK87
Organization Unit
A collection of business workers, business entities, relationships, business use-case realizations, diagrams, and other organization units. It is used to structure the business object model by dividing it into smaller parts. [D04862]

JN
T

 RUP
Organizational Breakdown Structure ("OBS")
A hierarchical structure designed to pinpoint the area of an organization responsible for each part of a project. [D01117]

GJN

 WST
A depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate work packages to organizational units. [D01116]

JN

 PMK96
A functionally oriented structure indicating organizational relationships and used as the framework for the assignment of work responsibilities. The organizational structure is progressively detailed downward to the lowest levels of management. [D04644]

JN

 QWF
Organizational Change
Deliberate modification to the management processes, organizational culture, and organizational systems that exist within an organization. [D06466]

N

 RMW
Organizational Change Management
See Management of Change. [D05807]

FGJ
CHMT

  
Organizational Constraints
Limitations on the project. [D02201]

JN

 PMMJ97
Definitions for page O01: 50

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