Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March 2002.

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Definition     Editor's Choice
See Engineering Change Proposal

Education and Training
See Education and see Training. [D02693]

Education, in project management
Project management education may be defined as the conveying of a broad background and general theoretical approach to enable an individual to analyze issues and find solutions. The knowledge is essentially descriptive. The benefit is in "How to apply it" but to do so requires further practice and experience. (See also Training.) [D00587]

See Early Finish Date

See Estimated Final Cost

Adequate for accomplishing the intended purpose. [D05175]

Effective Communication
The sending of a message that is received and understood as intended. A two-party process requiring willingness, motivation and discipline on the part of both sender and receiver. [D04356]

Effective Interest
The true value of interest rate computed by equations for compound interest rate for a 1-year period. [D00588]

A measure of the quality of attainment in meeting objectives; to be distinguished from efficiency, which is measured by the volume of output achieved for the input used. [D00589]

 OTOB 271-4
The extent to which the goals of a project are attained, or the degree to which a system can be expected to achieve a set of specific requirements. Also, an output of a Cost Effectiveness Analysis. [D02313]

The level of conformity of the product or services produced by the project in its operation as compared to its mission. It has to do with the content and substance of the project in performance of its duty. It is the primary measure of success. [D04324]

Effectiveness, in project planning
The extent to which the project plan, including requirements, and the execution of that plan will meet the project's objectives and the corresponding goals of the enterprise. [D02697]

The ratio of the useful work obtained to the energy expended. [D02695]

The doing of things correctly and accurately, using as little resources as possible. [D02694]

A measure of the speed and effectiveness with which a resource delivers a particular skill. [D03838]

A measure of the activities of the project people as applied to the project process; the measurement parameters are the standards of quality, time and cost applicable to each task in each situation. It is a secondary measure to effectiveness in the measure of success at completion. A project may be efficiently managed, but not be effective in achieving its mission, goals or objectives. [D04325]

Efficiency Factor
A measure of overall performance used in a work measurement system. It is calculated by dividing the standard time to perform the work by the actual time. [D03497]

Efficiency, in project execution
The application of efficiency during the project's execution phases, i.e. when its application is most appropriate. [D02696]

Productive, without waste. [D05176]

The number of labor units necessary to complete the work. Effort is usually expressed in staff hours, staff days or staff weeks and should not be confused with duration. [D00591]

The application of human energy to accomplish an objective. [D00590]

The number of labor units required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. See also duration. [D00592]

Effort Remaining
The estimate of effort remaining to complete an activity. A far more useful measure of progress than percentage complete. [D03839]

The estimate of effort remaining to complete an activity. [D00593]

Effort-Driven Activity
An activity whose duration is governed by resource usage and availability. The resource requiring the greatest time to complete the specified amount of work on the activity will determine its duration. [D04431]

An effort-drive activity provides the option to determine activity duration through resource usage. The resource requiring the greatest time to complete the specified amount of work on the activity will determine its duration. [D00594]

Eighty-Twenty Rule
A term created by Pareto, an Italian sociologist, meaning that a process or methodology will accommodate 80% of the situations that arise, with 20% of the situations requiring handling on a case-by-case basis. [D04081]

The second phase of the Unified Process in which the concept developed in the conception phase is funded for problem domain analysis, a sound architectural foundation is established, a project plan developed and highest risk elements are removed through preliminary iterations ready for full scale construction funding. The four phases of the Unified Process are Inception, Elaboration, Construction, and Transition. [D04831]

Elapsed Cost ("BEC")
See Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled [D02251]

Elapsed Duration
The amount of time needed to complete a task. [D00595]

Elapsed Time
The total number of calendar days (excluding non-work days such as weekends or holidays) that is needed to complete an activity. It gives a "real world view" of how long an activity is scheduled to take for completion. [D00596]

Electronic Files
Data stored in "files" on electronic media. Such files can only be accessed using a computer with an appropriate operating system. [D02698]

A basic component e.g. of the work breakdown structure. Level 3 of the system hierarchy. [D02700]

Element Definition Dictionary
A listing of terms and their meanings representing the contents or elements of a work breakdown structure. [D02699]

The transfer of messages and information by electronic means using a computer. [D02701]

Employee Relations
Those formal activities and procedures used by an organization to administer and develop its workforce. [D00597]

The engaging of individuals in useful work in return for compensation. [D02702]

The enabling of project team members to achieve self-control, that is, to do their jobs with the minimum of supervision consistent with their individual capabilities. To achieve this, each employee needs:
  1. A clear definition of what he or she is supposed to be doing, and for what purpose
  2. A personal plan on how to do the required work
  3. The skills and resources that are adequate for doing the work.
  4. Feedback on progress that goes directly to the person from the work itself.
  5. A clear definition of his or her authority to take positive corrective action when there is a deviation from plan

 PPS&C p191-2
See Expenditure Management Report

Enclosed Document
A document can be enclosed by another document to collect a set of documents into a whole; the enclosing document as well as the individual enclosures are regarded as separate artifacts. [D04832]

End Activity
An activity with no logical successors. [D00598]

End Event (of a project)
Event with preceding, but no succeeding activities.
Note: There may be more than one end event. [D04432]

End Item
See Deliverable or Product. [D02314]

End Stage Assessment
A mandatory management control at the end of each stage. Work may not proceed on the next stage until the project board has approved current status and future resource plans and technical plans at this assessment. [D03840]

End Tranche Assessment
A review carried out at the outset of the benefits realization phase to verify the completion of all tranche projects and to plan for maximizing benefits from tranche projects and executing the next tranche. [D04974]

End User
The individual or group who will use the system for its intended operational use when it is deployed in its environment. [D05177]

End User Representatives
A selected sample of end users who represent the total population of end users. [D05178]

Written Approval. Endorsement signifies personal understanding and acceptance of the thing endorsed, and recommends further endorsement by higher levels of authority if necessary. Endorsement of commitment by a person invested with appropriate authority signifies authorization. See Approve, Authorize. [D00599]

Agreement to a plan or action prior to final approval. [D04975]

End-Phase Assessment
See Post Project Review [D02178]

Definitions for page E01: 50

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