Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March 2002.

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Definition     Editor's Choice
A network diagramming technique in which events are represented by boxes (or nodes) connected by arrows to show the sequence in which the events are to be completed. Used in the original Program Evaluation and Review Technique. [D00637]

See Earned Value Management System

The life of the software after its initial development cycle; any subsequent cycle, during which the product evolves. [D04726]

An iterative development strategy that acknowledges that user needs are not fully understood and therefore requirements are refined in each succeeding iteration (elaboration phase). [D04727]

Evolutionary Development
A serial development approach where successive increments respond to new discoveries of the previous version. [D04089]

Evolutionary Prototype
The progressive maturing of a software or hardware product by building a model and developing it into the final product by the progressive introduction of required performance. [D04114]

An element of inspection consisting of investigation, without the use of special laboratory appliances or procedures, of supplies and services to determine conformance to those specified requirements which can be determined by such investigations. Examination is generally non-destructive and includes, but is not limited to visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, and other investigations; simple physical manipulation; gauging, and measurement. [D00638]

An exclusion or deviation from a specified or accepted reference set. [D02723]

Exception Report
Document that includes only major variations from plan (rather than all variations). [D00639]

Documentation that focuses its attention on variations of key control parameters that are critical rather than on those that are progressing as planned. [D00641]

Focused report drawing attention to instances where planned and actual results are expected to be, or are already, significantly different.
Note: An exception report is usually triggered when actual values are expected to cross a predetermined threshold that is set with reference to the project plan The actual values may be trending better or worse than plan. [D04578]

Exception Reporting
The process of documenting those situations where there are significant deviations from the quality specifications of a project. The assumption is made that the project will be developed within established boundaries of quality. When the process falls outside of those boundaries, a report is made on why this deviation occurred. [D00640]

Those occurrences that cause deviation from a plan, such as issues, change requests and risks. Exceptions can also refer to items that the cost variance and schedule variance exceed predefined thresholds. [D00642]

Exchange Rate
The rate of conversion from one currency to another. Exchange rates tend to fluctuate overtime and the rate is particularly important when an organization is involved in supplying or receiving goods and services to or from another country unless a currency has been specified for the project. [D02724]

Exclusive OR Relationship
Logical relationship indicating that only one of the possible activities can be undertaken. [D04436]

Exculpatory Language
Language in the contract documents which purports to release the liability of one party for certain actions which may occur during the performance of the work. [D04977]

Excusable Compensable Delays
Delays that are caused by the owner's actions or inactions. Also, the contractor is entitled to a time extension and damage compensation for extra costs associated with the delay. See also Excusable Delays; Excusable Non-compensable Delays; Non-Excusable Delays and Concurrent Delays. [D03422]

Excusable Delays
Delays that are not attributable to the contractor's action or inactions. Excusable delays when founded, entitle the contractor to a time extension if the completion date is affected. See also Excusable Compensable Delays; Excusable Non-compensable Delays; Non-Excusable Delays and Concurrent Delays. [D02902]

Excusable Non-Compensable Delays
Delays that are neither the contractor's nor the owner's fault. The contractor is entitled to a time extension but not to damage compensation. Non-excusable Delays, i.e. delays that are caused by the contractor's or its subcontractor's actions or inactions. Consequently, the contractor is not entitled to a time extension or delay damages. On the other hand the owner may be entitled to liquidated or other damages. See also Excusable Delays; Excusable Compensable Delays; Non-Excusable Delays and Concurrent Delays. [D03423]

Executable Architecture
A partial implementation of the system built to demonstrate selected system functions and properties, in particular those satisfying non-functional requirements. It is built during the elaboration phase to mitigate risks related to performance, throughput, capacity, reliability and other "ilities", so that the complete functional capability of the system is on a solid foundation may and can be added in the construction phase, without fear of breakage. The idea is to build an executable architecture as an evolutionary prototype, by retaining what is found to work (and satisfies requirements), and then making it part of the deliverable system. [D04833]

See implementation [D05148]

Execution Period
See Execution Phase. [D02725]

Execution Phase
The period within the project life cycle during which the actual work of creating the project's deliverables is carried out. [D00643]

The phase of a project in which work towards direct achievement of the project's objectives and the production of the project's deliverables occurs. Sometimes called the implementation phase. [D04437]

The senior level of management having the power to direct, authorize and give high-level approvals. [D02726]

The member of the project board who is responsible for ensuring that the system under development achieves the expected benefits and that the project is completed within the cost and time scales approved by the IT executive committee. [D03843]

Executive Authority
The individual or collective body representing the source of project management's authority. This authority may be channeled through a project sponsor, or project director. [D00644]

Executive Control Gate
A control gate identified, defined, and included in the project schedule by executive management. [D04090]

Executive Control Point
One or more points in the project life cycle at which the project's executive may exercise a go/no-go decision on the continuation of project activities. [D00646]

See Control Gate [D00359]

A point between project stages when top management has the opportunity to review the project status, the plan for the ensuing stage, verify its consistency with their latest business objectives and give, or withhold, approval to proceed. [D00645]

Executive Management
Senior managers responsible for overall direction, policy, and priorities. [D04091]

In an outline, making visible the collapsed tasks that are immediately subordinate to summary tasks. [D00647]

Anticipation of a happening upon which hopes are founded. [D02737]

Expectancy Theory
The view that our effort will be greatest when we expect that we can perform the task at hand and that we expect to obtain rewards for our performance.
Note: individual performance may be affected when rewards are team based and we do not have confidence in the rest of the team. See also Control Theory, Equity Theory, Goal Setting Theory, and Reinforcement Theory. [D02637]

 PMH p324
Expectation of Accountability
See Accountability. [D02738]

Expectation of Reliability
See Reliability. [D02739]

Looking forward to events that are about to happen. [D02740]

Expected Monetary Value
The product of an event's probability of occurrence and the gain or loss that will result. [D00648]

Expected Value ("EV")
A way for comparing the values/costs of different scenarios, rank opportunitiesand risks. A notional value that is calculated by multiplying the probability of an outcome times the estimated cost of that outcome. See also Most Likely Value. [D03624]

Expected Value, risk
A measure of the overall impact of a risk. It is calculated by multiplying the impact of an event by its associated probability of occurrence. It is equivalent to the average impact of the risk event which would result if we were to carry out a large number of identical projects. [D04978]

Expected Working Period
A proposed period of work, or the normal working day, week, month, year, that is expected of an employee. [D02741]

Facilitating and accelerating progress by the removal of obstacles.
Editor's Note: This is an important part of a project manager's job, especially in Procurement Management. [D02742]

Disbursed or spent. [D02743]

A charge against available funds, evidenced by a voucher, claim, or other documents. Expenditures represent the actual payment of funds. [D00649]

The conversion of resources. An expenditure is an event. Conversions of resources may take several forms:
  1. Exchange: conversion of title or ownership (e.g., dollars for materials),
  2. Consumption: conversion of a liquid resource to a less recoverable state, i.e., expenditures of time, human resources, dollars to produce something of value, or the incorporation of inventoried materials into fixed assets.

A sum of money paid out for work relating to the project as evidenced by an invoice, receipt or similar payment voucher. For control purposes expenditures should be recognized when payment vouchers are approved by the project manager, i.e. long before accounts payable disburses funds or cheques are cleared at the bank. [D00653]

A using up of money or time for goods and services. [D02754]

Expenditure Authority
The senior management responsible for giving permission for, or the actual approval of, disbursement of funds. [D02746]

Expenditure Management Report ("EMR")
A fiscally-oriented project expenditure report that includes a number of special Cost Types. [D00651]

Expenditure Profile
A chart of estimated monthly project costs and commitments versus time. Often shown with actual expenditures for comparison. [D04979]

Expenditure to Budget
A comparison of, or the difference between, the amount expended and the corresponding budget allocation. [D02745]

Expenditure to Date
The sum of all direct costs for a particular activity, work package or whole project, up to the most recent cutoff date. See also Total Expenditure to Date. [D02597]

The amount recorded as actually disbursed and accrued on an activity or whole project up to the current cutoff or data date. [D02744]

Cost of operation and maintenance of activities on the accrual basis for a fiscal period as distinguished from cost of acquisition of property. [D02755]

The knowledge gained by direct exposure and involvement in real-life practical conditions. [D02747]

An effort to discover or confirm some principle or effect usually in some scaled down form such as a mockup, or surrogate form such as a computer model. [D02748]

One who is skilled by virtue of learning and experience. One who has acquired special knowledge, skill or mastery of something. [D02749]

Expert Power
The ability (of a project manager) to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as possessing special knowledge or expertise (that functional personnel consider important.) [D02891]

A specialized, in-depth body of knowledge, skills, and competence that is a major, identifiable component of the relevant discipline. [D03621]

The total liabilities and potential claims that the company may be liable for in a given project at a particular time. [D04980]

Extended Life Cycle
See Product Life Cycle. [D04591]

Extended Subsequent Applications Review ("ESAR")
A formal review performed in lieu of a full C/SCSC demonstration review, when contractor conditions have changed or when programs change from one phase to another. For example, when a program moves from research and development into production, when contractors move programs from one facility to another, or when contractors make significant changes to their C/SCSC systems descriptions. [D00654]

Literally: outside. Usually refers to someone, or some influence, that is not part of or from the organization or the project team. [D02750]

External Constraint
A constraint from outside the project network. [D00655]

External Politics
Politics that are beyond the influence of the project team. [D02751]

External Procurement Sources
Extra-firm sources including industry contacts, market data, competitive intelligence and regulatory information which could aid procurement decision-making. [D00656]

Conditions that are beyond the influence of the project team. [D02752]

The end of all activity on a project, usually before meeting its stated objectives. The end results of a project terminated by extinction are neither terminated by inclusion or integration. [D00657]

 OTOB 271-4
Extra Work Order
See field order [D00658]

Extra Works
Requirements that require additional effort that were not contemplated in the original contract or agreement. [D02753]

Definitions for page E04: 71

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