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Wideman Comparative Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v5.5 is copyright © R. Max Wideman, 2000-2017.

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Last updated 12-22-17

Master Glossary
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Term
Definition     Editor's Choice
Cat Source
Labor
Any of the following:
  1. The expenditure of physical or mental effort especially when difficult or compulsory.
  2. Human activity that provides goods or services
  3. An economic group comprising those who do manual labor, generally represented by labor unions.
[D02921]

N

 Webster
Labor Agreements
Formal contracts between the enterprise and its labor unions. [D02922]

N

 RMW
Labor Efficiency
The ratio of earned hours to actual hours spent on a prescribed task during a reporting period. When earned hours equal actual hours, the efficiency equals 100%. [D06038]

N

 PMTWG
Labor Intensive
Project activities that have a high content of manual effort relative to production achieved through the use of mechanical equipment. [D02923]

JN

 RMW
Labor Pool
A pool or agency from which workers can be hired by interested employers. [D02942]

JN

 PMDT
Labor Productivity
See Productivity. [D03638]

JN

  
Labor Rate Variances
Difference between planned labor rates and actual labor rates. [D00890]

JN

 WST
Labor Relations
Those formal activities developed by an organization to negotiate and bargain with its workforce, whether or not that workforce is unionized. [D00891]

JN

 PMK87
Labor Turnover
The relationship between employee hirings and separations. [D02943]

JN

 PMDT
Ladder
Device for representing a set of overlapping activities in a network diagram.
Note: The start and finish of each succeeding activity are linked only to the start and finish of the preceding activity by lead and lag activities, which consume only time. [D04457]

JN

 APM
BS
A sequence of parallel activities connected at their starts or finishes, or both. [D00892]

N

 WST
Ladder Activity
A type of activity identified in network scheduling. An arrangement in which two or more series of activities progress concurrently but in lockstep because of dependent links between the same rungs of each ladder. [D02924]

N

 RMW
Lag
The amount of time after one task is started or finished before the next task can be started or finished.
Editor's Note: A Lag may have a negative value tied to the finish of a previous activity, reflecting a Fast Track approach. [D00895]

JN
C

 OTOB pp271-4
A modification of a logical relationship which directs a delay in the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a 10 day lag, the successor activity cannot start until 10 days after the predecessor has finished. See also lead. [D00893]

JN
C

 PMK96
The logical relationship between the start and/or finish of one activity and the start and/or finish of another activity. [D00894]

JN
C

 PMK87
The time delay between the start or finish of an activity and the start or finish of its successor(s). See finish-to-finish lag, finish-to-start lag, and start-to-start lag. [D00898]

JN
C

 WST
PMST
Either
  1. In a network diagram, the minimum necessary lapse of time between the finish of one activity and the finish of an overlapping activity, or
  2. Delay incurred between two specified activities.
[D04583]

JN
C

 APM
BS
Lag Duration
A duration by which a given task must be completed before the succeeding activity can begin. [D00896]

JN

 CPMUSC p176-8
Lag Relationship
The four basic types of lag relationships between the start and/or finish of a work item and the start and/or finish of another work item are:
  1. Finish to Start
  2. Start to Finish
  3. Finish to Finish
  4. Start to Start
[D00897]

JN

 PMK87
Lag Time
The amount of time delay between the completion of one task and the start of its successor task. [D00899]

JN

 MSP98
Lagging
Deliberately setting the start, or finish, of on activity behind the start, or finish, of another. A scheduling technique necessary to enable relatively concurrent progress on more than one activity. [D02925]

JN

 RMW
Laissez-faire Management Style
A management approach in which team members are not directed by management. Little information flows from the project team to the project manager, or vice versa. This style is appropriate if the team is highly skilled and knowledgeable and wants no interference by the project manager. [D06039]

GJN

 PMTWG
LAN
See Local Area Network

T

  
Language
A systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, or gestures. [D00900]

N

 PMK87
Last In, First Out ("LIFO")
For inventory accounting purposes, the last unit into the inventory is assumed to be the first unit to be drawn out. The inventory value assigned to any unit drawn out is the value of the last unit recorded as still being in inventory. It does not matter which unit is physically drawn out of inventory. See also FIFO. [D03520]

JN

 GAT
Late Bid
A bid received in the office designated in the invitation for bids after the exact time set for opening. [D03522]

JN

 GAT
Late Dates
Calculated in the backward pass of time analysis, late dates are the latest dates on which an activity can start and finish. [D00901]

JN

 WST
Late Event Date
Calculated from backward pass, it is the latest date an event can occur. [D00902]

JN

 WST
Late Finish
See Latest Finish. [D06319]

JN

  
Late Finish Date
See Latest Finish. [D06320]

JN

  
Late Finish Time
See Latest Finish. [D06321]

JN

  
Late Start
See Latest Start. [D06314]

JN

  
Late Start Date
See Latest Start. [D06315]

JN

  
Late Start Time
See Latest Start. [D06316]

JN

  
Latent Defect
A defect which exists at the time of acceptance but cannot be discovered by a reasonable inspection. See also Patent Defect. [D03523]

GJN
CHMT

 GAT `
Lateral Communication
Communication across lines of equivalent authority or between managers at the same level in an organization's hierarchy. [D00909]

JN

 OTOB p271-4
Lateral Thinking
A technique used to encourage new and creative ideas without necessarily any logical sequence. [D02944]

N

 PMDT
Latest Event Time
Latest time by which an event has to occur within the logical and imposed constraints of the network, without affecting the total project duration. [D04458]

JN

 APM
BS
Latest Finish
Latest possible time by which an activity must finish within the logical and imposed constraints of the network, without affecting the total project duration. [D06325]

JN

 APM
BS
The latest time an activity may be completed without delaying the project finish date. [D00903]

JN

 PMK87
The latest dates by which an activity can finish to avoid causing delays in the project. Many PM software packages calculate late dates with a backward pass from the end of the project to the beginning. [D00905]

JN

 WST
PMST
In a network diagram schedule, the latest time at which an activity can be finished. [D00910]

JN

 SPM p304-9
The latest day a work item can finish without affecting the project duration assuming that all subsequent work items start as soon as they are able and are completed in their expected times. [D00911]

JN

 CCCP
Latest Finish Date ("LFD")
In the critical path method, the latest possible date that an activity may be completed without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date). [D00904]

JN

 PMK96
See Latest Finish. [D06322]

JN

  
Latest Finish Time
See Latest Finish. [D06323]

JN

  
Latest Revised Estimate
See Estimate at Completion. [D05664]

JN

  
Latest Start
Latest possible time by which an activity must start within the logical and imposed constraints of the network, without affecting the total project duration. [D06324]

JN

 APM
BS
The latest time an activity may begin without delaying the project finish date of the network. This date is calculated as the late finish minus the duration of the activity. [D00906]

JN

 PMK87
In the critical path method, the latest possible date that an activity may be begun without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date). [D00907]

JN

 PMK96
The latest dates by which an activity can start to avoid causing delays in the project. Many PM software packages calculate late dates with a backward pass from the end of the project to the beginning. [D00908]

JN

 WST
PMST
In a network diagram schedule, the latest time at which an activity can be started. [D00912]

JN

 SPM p304-9
The latest day that a work item can start without affecting the final project duration. This assumes that it is completed in its expected time and all subsequent work items start as soon as they are able and are completed in their expected times. [D00913]

JN

 CCCP
Definitions for page L00: 53

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